Without a sustainable tourism management plan, negative environmental impacts can occur (Hohl & Tisdell, 1995), as tourism uses the natural resources of a region at little or no price (Hohl & Tisdell, 1995).
These impacts can occur in: - Point form (direct): identifiable resort development (eg. ski resort) - Non point form (direct, indirect and induced): a result of dispersed tourism activity and overall land use change (eg. run-off from snow-making into national parks via rivers and streams, carbon dioxide from air travel)
Table 3 shows the various action factors involved in tourism and the likely negative impact(s) they will have on the natural environment. These will be displayed by the action factors and the impacts of each. This was derived from reviewing credible literature.
Table 3: Negative impacts of tourism on the natural environment.
Source: Sabo (2012).
Key points: - from an environmental perspective, tourism mostly effects flora, fauna and the natural landscape. - human impacts have the largest impacts on the environment (vehicles, rubbish, pollution)
Difficulties of a symbiotic relationship between tourism and the environment
There are three types of relationships that can exist between the tourism industry (tourism) and nature conservationists (the environment) (Budowski, 1976):
Table 4 shows the different relationship that can occur between tourism and the natural environment. These will be displayed by the various relationships and a description of each. This was derived from reviewing credible literature.
Table 4: Relationships between tourism and the environment.
Source: Budowski (1979); Romeril (1985).
Key points: - there are three types of relationships that can exist between tourism and the environment - these vary in terms of impact on environment and conflict between tourism and nature conservationists.
Goals of sustainable tourism and ecotourism
Sustainable tourism is difficult to achieve as there will always be an impact on the environment, however, action should always be taken to try to achieve it.
There are three aspects of sustainable tourism: - sociocultural: increase awareness or and respect for other cultures, increase social (short-term) and cultural (long-term) interactions, protect human heritage (Hall, 2007) - economic: ensure economic prosperity, create employment opportunities - environmental: preserve ecological processes (Hall, 2007)
For tourism to be sustainable, there cannot be a tradeoff between these three aspects, all must be balanced and sustainably managed (Dowling, 1993). Although they must all be positive, the only trade off that can occur is having a smaller positive impact of one of the three aspects.
Table 5 shows the goals of sustainable tourism and ecotourism. These will be displayed by the different types of goals. This was derived from reviewing credible literature.
Table 5: Goals of sustainable tourism and ecotourism.
Sources: Bramwell & Lane (2010); Hall (2007).
Key points: - there are three types of goals, each with sub-categories - each goal focuses on a different aspect of tourism (natural, sociocultural, built, managerial, interpersonal)
It is essential that the natural resources of the tourism industry are preserved due to its heavy reliance on the environment (Hall, 2007). Although this can be difficult to achieve (Catlin, Jones & Jones, 2011), it is vital if the tourism industry wishes to continue to flourish. When sustainable tourism is achieved, tourism destinations are helping to preserve natural resources for future use for a longer period of time (Butler, 1999).